Monday, May 25, 2020

The Deviant Nature of Obesity - 2746 Words

The Deviant Nature of Obesity Sociology 277 Jill Prunty Obesity has become increasingly more prominent in American society. The Unites States has even been termed an overweight nation. Some twenty to thirty percent of American adults are now considered obese (Hwang 1999 and Hirsch et al 1997). With this in mind, Americans constantly look around themselves determining their weight status as well as that of those around them. While some Americans do fit the healthy category, others enter the underweight, overweight, and even obese categories, all of which can be unhealthy. Obesity can be termed deviant for a variety of reasons. Not only is it unhealthy, but it is also a widely unaccepted†¦show more content†¦All of these contribute to obesity. Some attitudes might foster an acceptance within a peer group or family for obesity. Causal behaviors for obesity include overeating and lack of activity. Conditions consequential to obesity include socioeconomic factors and poor education. Labeling theory gives definition to the obese. The deviant is one to whom the deviant label has been successfully applied (51). Having achieved obese status, the person has also achieved deviant status. The obese have acquired a conditional deviant status, which can be changed, thereby moving the person back within the norm (9). However, the deviant label is not always easily removed (9). While those who lose weight and can keep it off are cheered on by society, those who regain lost weight have a harder time removing their labels. They are then labeled yo-yo dieters. One obvious example is Oprah Winfrey. A popular talk show host, Winfrey has been in the spotlight and public eye for years. Weight has been an issue for her from the beginning. America has watched her lose weight only to gain it back over and over again. Many comments have been made on other television shows, in magazine articles, and in simple conversation concerning her weight. She will continue to be seen as at least having been fat, even when she is thinner. On the other hand, those who lose the weight and keep it off become positive deviants. The deviant exits theShow MoreRelatedObesity And Its Effects On Society997 Words   |  4 Pagesone looks, but it is the reaction of society or how society reacts that determines if an act is deviant or not (Goode, 2011). Obesity adheres to Goffman’s typology of stigma and deviance; abomination of the body and blemish of individual character (Goode, 2011). Terms such â€Å"Hog Bodies† or â€Å"Pigs in Human suits† are frequently used because the majority considers obesity as a product of immoral or deviant behavior. Furthermore, individuals that are not fat believe those that are obese became fat becauseRead MoreThe Obesity Epidemic Essay2683 Words   |  11 Pages Obesity has become increasingly more prominent in American society. The Unites States has even been termed an overweight nation. Some twenty to thirty percent of American adults are now considered obese (Hwang 1999 and Hirsch et al 1997). With this in mind, Americans constantly look around themselves determining their weight status as well as that of those around them. While some Americans do fit the healthy category, others enter the underweight, overweight, and even obese categories, all of whichRead MorePedophilia and Deviant Behavior1695 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Pedophilia and Deviant Behavior Sonja Johnson Sociology of Deviant Behavior Professor Grant Pikes Peak Community College August 3, 2014 There exists a group of people possessing what some refer to as a mental disorder, while others refer to it as a personality or behavioral disorder characterized by the urge to have sexual relations with those of a non-consenting age. Initially this paper will examine why exactly this is a deviant behavior. We will then go on to analyzeRead MoreObesity3999 Words   |  16 PagesObesity is a problem that affects virtually every person on the planet. Everyone knows someone who is overweight or they themselves are overweight. In this research paper we will be looking at the topic of obesity and the social ramifications that it holds. We will first look at obesity in a broad way. Then we will focus on obesity and its effects on children. And finally, obesity and adulthood will be covered. The topic of obesity is important to the field of sociology because obese peopleRead MoreThe Obesity Epidemic in America Essay examples3918 Words   |  16 Pages In this research paper we will be looking at the topic of obesity and the social ramifications that it holds. We will first look at obesity in a broad way. Then we will focus on obesity and its effects on children. And finally, obesity and adulthood will be covered. The topic of obesity is important to the field of sociology because obese people make up a significant portion of the world’s population. In addition, the manner in which obese people are treated has a significant effect on societyRead MoreEssay on The Impact Advertising Has on Children1394 Words   |  6 Pagesunhealthy for them. Unfortunately the message from this type of advertising is geared toward the child thinking I need to have the fast food. This is a bad message to leave in children?s minds, because it can also cause problems with their health. The obesity rate in young children has risen drastically over the last twenty years. Health reports have attributed this to the continuing increase in the amount of fast food children are consuming. Television commercials for fast food are on every channel, andRead MoreDrug Abuse And Adolescent Risky Behavior884 Words   |  4 Pagesthese novel experiences (p. 392). This essay will attempt to discuss how the brain is developing, being impacted, and, how spiritual development effects adolescent risky behavior. Risky behaviors can include any behavior that is seen by most as deviant social behavior. For example, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity, eating disorders, alcohol abuse, etc. These behaviors occur in youth for a number of reasons and can range from being mild to severe. Some reasons for risky behaviors is: doing what theirRead MoreEssay about Children and Television1536 Words   |  7 Pagesas how McDonalds offers toys to attract sales of their products. Findings of Zimmerman and Bell conclude, â€Å"Television viewing may be a sedentary activity, but it is not for that reason that it is associated with obesity in children. The relationship between television viewing and obesity among children is limited to commercial television viewing and probably operates through the effect of advertising obesogenic foods on television† (2010 p338). Children also face psychological health concernsRead MoreCritical Evaluation a Research Study on Empowerment and Personal Identity3199 Words   |  13 Pagesepidemiological studies in which researchers showed rapid increases in national and international rates of obesity over the last 20 years and linked obesity to a variety of physical and psychological health conditions. Other studies and international organizations too have focused and highlighted obesity as a major endemic. For instance, The World Health Organization (WHO, 2000) cautioned against an obesity epidemic, as a result of which the losses to society, both social and financial, are enhancing.Read MoreSociology And Its Effect On Society3599 Words   |  15 Pagesconceptualized types of norms: folkways, mores, and crime. Folkways are norms that define interactions based on customs, traditions, and etiquette. Violating folkway norms does not lead to legal repercussion, but does assert behavior that is seen as deviant from the expected. Mores are norms that define interactions based on the broad morals of society. Violating mores are often described as taboo, but does not lead to legal repercussion. Individuals whom violate mores are seen as harmful to society

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Use Of Nonverbal Communication And How It Affects...

It seems that in today’s fast paced society filled with smartphones, computers, mobile tablets and all the world’s knowledge at our fingertips, that we forget the subtle art of nonverbal communication and how it affects human interactions. By non-verbal communication I am not talking about things such as emails, texts, carrier pigeons and whatever other method of messaging system you prefer to use. I am referring to the face to face exchanges with real humans and how small things such as personal space or body language can alter the outcome of any connections we have throughout the day. There are varying influences that come play a part during these exchanges. Kinesics, haptics and proxemics are merely a few of these aspects. If extra people paid attention to the soundless ways humans communicate their needs and desires, consequently I feel there would be less miscommunication, misinterpretations and an overall improved human experience. Simply observing someone’ s body language can clue you in on what could possibly be running through their mind during your communication. Working in a retail environment, ordinarily one is allotted ample opportunity to see and have encounters with a variety of diverse individuals. Working in a retail marijuana store, that variety becomes larger. The innumerable interactions one has throughout the day are a prime time to witness non-verbal communication. Watching co-workers take a positive sale, crash and burn or on the other side of that,Show MoreRelatedThe role of Non Verbal Communication in the Facilitation of Social Interaction1496 Words   |  6 Pagesto communicate with one another is of paramount importance to the success of the human race (Hartley, 1999). Communication is a dynamic process with the interacting components of sending and receiving information. Nonverbal cues may provide clarity or contradiction for a message being sent (Dunn, 1998). This is not to say that nonverbal forms of communicat ion merely provide a modem of clarity for verbal communication, they can, and do, stand alone (Krauss et al, 1995). Facial expressions, body movementsRead MoreDiscuss the Role Non Verbal Communication Plays in the Facilitation of Social Interaction and the Consequences of Its Absence on Social Relationships1510 Words   |  7 Pagescommunicate with one another is of paramount importance to the success of the human race (Hartley, 1999). Communication is a dynamic process with the interacting components of sending and receiving information. Nonverbal cues may provide clarity or contradiction for a message being sent (Dunn, 1998). This is not to say that nonverbal forms of communication merely provide a modem of clarity for verbal communication, they can, and do, stand alone (Krauss et al, 1995). Facial expressions, bodyRead MoreNonverbal Communication : The Method Of Encoding And Decoding1108 Words   |  5 PagesNonverbal communication consists of the method of encoding and de coding. Encoding is the act of producing the communication using gestures, facial expressions, and posture. Decoding is the process of receiving the information and how the individual processes that information based on their previous experiences. Culture plays a significant role that helps the way learning activities are organized. Nonverbal communication consists of visual cues such as kinesics, proxemics, paralanguage, and hapticsRead MoreNonverbal Communication Is The Loudest Form Of Communication873 Words   |  4 PagesNonverbal Communication Is The Loudest Form of Communication in Romantic Relationships Makenzie Wells Arizona State University The key to a successful relationship may not be through a spoken interaction, but through a reflection of one’s nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal communication is surprisingly the loudest form of communication, because it is the miracle behind successfully connecting with someone without speaking. There many different forms of nonverbal communication including;Read MoreCommunication And How It Affects Nursing As A Profession1470 Words   |  6 PagesCommunication is central to human interaction and occurs planned or unplanned on a daily basis. Using verbal, nonverbal, written, or unwritten communication are methods in which information, a person’s thoughts, and feelings are shared. To become an ultimate professional in a field, such as nursing, it is vital to be able to communicate well with peers and clients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the pros and cons, societal issues, promotion of change, and other pertinent issues that relatesRead MoreExploring the Differ ent Types of Non-Verbal Communication Essay1046 Words   |  5 PagesCommunication is an interactive process whereby people seek to induce some form of change in attitude, belief, or behavior. (Moore, Hickson III and Stack, 2010, p. 5) It is the primary avenue that people use to send and receive messages through predetermined codes. Communication is broken down into verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication is an oral interaction between individuals and considered to be an explicit method of communication. Since sounds, words, speaking, and languageRead MoreExpectancy Violation Theory And Its Significance1650 Words   |  7 Pagesinterpersonal communication. The theory highlights the unexpected behavior of human being while interacting (Dainton, 2011). This theory is based on the reduction uncertainty where ambiguity on behaviors of others is reduced through interaction. Expectancy violations theory offers some prospect to compare the personality of traditional empiricism with humanism. The theory was developed from the Nonverbal expectancy violation model of Burgoon who describes the nature of response of human beings to theRead MoreRelationship Between A Parent And Child1653 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most intense emotions that human beings experience is love. For some, it’s the love between a parent and child, a platonic friend, or a significant other. For many, a romantic relationship is the most important element in their lives. A good relationship can improve all characteristics of your life, such as strengthening health, mind and connections with others. The ability to have a healthy loving relationship is a lot of work, give and take, and comprising of one’s individual wantsRead MoreThree Theories of Nonverbal Communication Essay1231 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Systematic research on the role of nonverbal behavior in social interaction has been common only in the past 20 to 25 years.†(Edinger and Patterson, 1983, p. 30).because that statement was published in 1983, it is apparent that the study of nonverbal behavior has been around for roughly 50 to 55 years. However, that is still a relatively recent amount of time compared to research in other science fields such as chemistry or biology. Despite the fact that this field is relatively recent there areRead MoreNonverbal Communication Involves The Processes Of Encoding And Decoding Essay1055 Words   |  5 Pages Nonverbal communication involves the processes of encoding and decoding. Encoding is the act of generating the information such as facial expressions, gestures, and postures. Decoding is the interpretation of information from received sensations from previous experiences. Nonverbal communication between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues. It includes the use of visual cues such as body language, distance and physical environments/appearance and of touch. It can

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on United States Foreign Policy Following World War II

Though the United States was the military power of the world prior to World War II, its foreign policy was one of detachment. The government was determined not to get involved in other countries affairs barring unusual circumstances. A World War provided big enough means to become involved, as many Americans became enraged with the military ambitions of Japan and Germany. Following World War II, Soviet leader Stalin initially agreed to a democratic government in Poland and to free elections in other Soviet-occupied countries, but he ignored his own promises. This caused the United States and Britain to ignore Stalin’s wish of taking a hard line with Germany in settlement talks. The Soviets formed the Socialist Unity party in East†¦show more content†¦The Soviet Union was not the only nation in the postwar era to enact a communist platform. Mao-Tse-Tung and the communists drove Chiang-Kai-Shek’s Nationalists to Taiwan from mainland China. The United Nations did not admit this government until October 25, 1971 and the United States did not recognize the People’s Republic of China until 1979. Korea was temporarily divided into a Soviet occupied North Korea and an American occupied South Korea. These two countries supported two different Korean governments and when the secretary of state Dean Acheson declared that Korea was not inside â€Å"the United States’ sphere of interest† (Stranges, 195), North Korea attacked South Korea believing that the United States would not defend the democratic government of the south. The United Nations came to the backing of the south, which prompted China to send troops because they did not want the United States and South Korea to dominate the Korean peninsula. The war stalled at the 38th parallel in early 1951 and a 151 mile wide demilitarized zone currently divides the two sides. Another incident with China occurred in 1954 when China began bombing Quemoy and Matsu, two small rocky islands 10 miles off the coast of China. The United States became involved by signing the Formosa Resolution in January of 1955. The resolution guaranteed to protect the twoShow MoreRelatedAs Senator Arthur Vandenberg Famously Stated In 1947, â€Å"We1579 Words   |  7 Pagesthe water’s edge.† Vandenberg’s declaration suggests that domestic policy differences should not affect how the United States conducts itself abroad. This notion is especially relevant in understanding the discrepancies – or lack thereof – between foreign and domestic policy in the modern United States. Since its founding, the United States has prided itself on its exceptionalism, with many of its leaders endorsing a â€Å"foreign policy driven more by domestic values than by the vagaries of internationalRead MoreThe United States Trade Policy1741 Words   |  7 PagesSinc e the early 1930s, tariff reduction has been the prevalent theme of United States trade policy. In the future, economic historians will put an emphasis on the way the liberalization of trade over the past forty to sixty years has molded this particular trade policy. Since 1930, tariffs have been gradually reduced to roughly twenty percent of the regular level they were back then. This is a direct result of a sequence of eight multilateral negotiations and around thirty bilateral agreements. HoweverRead MoreThe Cold War And The Soviet Union1122 Words   |  5 Pages The Cold War was a state of political hostility between the U.S and the Soviet bloc, the most powerful nations in the world. The two countries fought together as allies in World War II but toward the end of the War the two nations competing ideologies and visions of the post War prevented them from working together. The Cold War was by far the biggest threat to human existence the world has ever seen, although their was never any declaration of War between the two competing nations, the SovietRead MoreThe United States Foreign Policy1667 Words   |  7 PagesAs Kelly Anderson’s Foreign Policy Analyst, the following memo will address three areas of the United States’ foreign policy. The U.S. has gone through may transition when it comes to its foreign policy. The United States has been an isolationist, neutralist, and internationalist country from the year it was founded to now. The executive branch and the president apply their power to influence and change the nation’s foreign policy. There are specific departments within the Executive Office of theRead MoreAmerica, An Ever Changing World Superpower1504 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica, an Ever-Changing World Superpower America has been viewed in a wide variety of ways on the global stage. From the Progressive Era to containment, the view of the United States as a world power has changed dramatically. The country went through a large process of adopting an isolationist policy during the Progressive Era. This isolationist view was also present pre and post-World War I. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, America took a bold stance and using its industrial power pushed itselfRead MoreThe Policy Of Neutrality During World War II1555 Words   |  7 PagesOn September 5, at its outset, the United States declared and maintained its policy of neutrality in the Second World War. Following ongoing atrocities committed by the Axis powers, however, President Franklin D. Roosevelt felt compelled to limit their strength by freezing their U.S. assets and restricting trade of certain goods. Soon after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Congress unanimously declared war on Japan. Days later, the rest of the Axis powers, including Nazi Germany, Italy, and their smallerRead MoreWorld War II : The Great People s War1529 Words   |  7 PagesWorld War II (The Great People’s War) was of deep importance to the formation of today’s international relations system, however the following periods after this war between the greatest powers in the world are also of great significance. The analysis of those periods and their impact on world history will be the first approach of this assessment. It is important to clarify that these periods cannot be annualized as isolated events that happened in History, but related events that in a way or anotherRead MoreHispaniola Essay1135 Words   |  5 PagesNevertheless, the United States intervened in other Latin American countries, including the Dominican Republic and Haiti, to prevent social uprisings which threatened to de-stabilize the island of Hispaniola. In 1913 a threat of a revolution in the Dominican Republic brought an American squadron to the c oast. Tensions began to subside until May of 1916, when the next revolution occurred. The U.S. navy landed sailors, while the commanding Admiral threatened to bombard the capital, Santo Domingo, unlessRead MoreThe United States Outlook on Foreign Policy Affairs Essay881 Words   |  4 PagesThe United States Outlook on Foreign Policy Affairs The United States outlook on foreign policy affairs after World War II was influenced by the fear of communist expansionism rather than establishing foreign relations with each country. The U.S. found itself with a conflict between its profound belief in the constitution and democracy and a need for domestic and national security. In 1947, the National Security Act authorized the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency. Its role was toRead MoreThe Cold War : Communism And Capitalism997 Words   |  4 Pages The Cold War When the cold war began, no one thought that it would last as long as it did. Many people thought the war was caused by fighting, and there were some people that thought it was caused by the conflicts of communism and capitalism, so who was right? Well we only know what we read in our history books which says that it was caused by the conflicts of communism and capitalism. Was this the real reason for the cold war? In my essay I will give details about the cold war and tell why

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

I wanna be yours, To His Coy Mistress and Our Love Now Essay Example For Students

I wanna be yours, To His Coy Mistress and Our Love Now Essay The three poems I am going to write about are I wanna be yours, To His Coy Mistress and Our Love Now. In my essay, I am going to relate to way in which the poems I have chosen show there attitudes towards love and lovers. I am going to study the way in which the poets use language to create the attitudes towards love and I am going to study the ways in which the poems create the whole idea of love and what its purpose in life is. The layout of Our Love Now is set out as if it was an argument, but when you look at the line numbers it is not an argument because the man says it all first and then the women says it all. The woman in Our Love Now portrays their love as dead, while the man portrays their love as getting stronger: The tree is forever dead Such is our love That is what the woman says about their relationship after they had an argument or something. The man says: The breach in us can be mended This shows us that the mans attitude towards love is very different to womans attitude towards love. The man thinks that whatever has happened between them has just made their love stronger but the woman believes very different to what he thinks. The man sees the relationship as mending the past but the woman sees their relationship as dead as a tree, this shows us that the poet thinks that men have different views on love and relationships than a woman would have. The poem shows what men think about relationships and love in the general. It also shows the womans thoughts about relationships and love. The poem shows a typical mans views on line five and six: The cut will mend, and such is our relationship While the womans views about the same thing is: There is always a scar a permanent reminder The womans views are that once there was a boundary between her and her boyfriend that is overcome, there will always be a painful reminder of that with a scar. This again shows that men have a different outlook on relationships compared to women. The second poem I have chosen is I wanna be yours. This poem makes love sound unique and something very special that only happens once in your life. This is shown in the language that the author has used. The author uses repetition throughout the poem. He repeats: I wanna be yours And Let me be This shows the other side of a mans views on love when compared to the man in Our Love Now. This poem shows the attitude towards love women actually want when the man in Our Love Now is showing the other side, the one women do not want. The poet uses repetition and by making visual images through the way in which he writes the poem. He does this to show that the man and woman is a perfect match: Let me be your dreamboat when you wanna sail away This shows that the characters in the poems attitudes to love are warm and open minded about the whole thing. The third poem I have chosen is To His Coy Mistress. This is a pre- twentieth century poem. This poem has the same outline as I wanna be yours by showing that the man is in love with a women and he is trying to persuade her to be his lover. This poem is very romantic towards the woman that the man in the poem is after because every woman who reads the poem secretly wishes that they could be treated in the way that the man is treating the woman. .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef , .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .postImageUrl , .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef , .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:hover , .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:visited , .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:active { border:0!important; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:active , .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u22e3c84feb85e81dc74382a83a0dadef:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The themes of Eveline and a little cloud EssayThis poem has little hidden messages towards the reader and the woman, in the poem it says: The graves a fine and private place. But none, I think do there embrace Now, therefore, while the youthful hue. This is telling us that the man is saying we are going to die anyway, so life your life while you can and give me a chance. This shows that the man is after the woman for love but the woman is thinking about his offer. To His Coy Mistress and I wanna be yours have the same outline of the poems. This is shown by both texts having a man in love with a woman. The men are trying everything to persuade the women in the poems to give them a chance. The men in these poems have totally different attitudes to love. I wanna be yours shows the other side of a mans views on love when compared to the man in Our Love Now. The man in Our Love Now is only thinking about himself in the relationship and not the woman while the man in I wanna be yours thinks about both himself and the woman. I wanna be yours and To His Coy Mistress portray love as something special and everlasting while Our Love Now portrays love as a part time thing. However, it concentrates more of the bad side of love rather than the good side of love and this is shown in the layout of the poem, it is layed out as if it was an argument.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Terrorism And Security In The Olympics Essays -

Terrorism And Security In The Olympics Terrorism and Security in the Olympics Security is a fundamental notion in sports. Nowadays athletes are viewed often through the media, therefore they are recognizable. In the Olympics security measures must be taken to protect the athletes. There are many different nationalities involved therefore security has to be taken in order to ensure that there aren't conflicting views that could possibly be damaging towards another team. But quite often it cannot be prevented. On the morning of September 5, 1972, the members of the Israeli delegation awoke in their quarters in the Olympic village to the desperate cries of wrestling referee Joseph Gottfreund. Eight Arab commandos (from the Palestinian terrorist organization Black September) broke into the Olympic compound in Munich. In an attempt to create time for an escape, Joseph Gottfreund tried to block off the door to the quarters in order to stall the intruders. He told his colleagues to leave the premises. The terrorist shot and killed him immediately along with Yaakov Springer, the weightlifting referee. Those in the adjoining apartments who were not woken by the muffled cries were woken from the sounds of machine guns. The commandos then took nine others of the eighteen-member Israeli Olympic team hostage. They then settled into the compound for a siege. The terrorists imprisoned and tied up the athletes and their coaches inside the apartments. They were moved into one of the delegates' room where they were guarded by eight of the terrorists. Their weapons included sub-machine guns, pistols and grenades. Moshe Weinberg, a wrestling referee, and Joseph Romano, a weightlifter, were killed during an effort to free themselves from the terrorists. Their reasons for holding the Israelis hostage were that they wanted to persuade the release of two hundred Arab guerrillas that were being held in Israel. The terrorists demanded that the prisoners be flown from Israel to an Arab country, allowing them free passage. West German officials negotiated with the Arab commandos with the help of the Tunisian Ambassador and the representative of the Arab League from Bonn. But unfortunately, this has no effect on what the commandos were trying to accomplish. Their demands were unreasonable, and the Israeli side would not budge from its views. In an attempt to save some of the Israeli hostages, two West German ministers of the interior offered themselves as replacements for the hostages. The Arabs refused this offer. It was obvious that the negotiations over the release of the hostages were not going to work. A new plan was put into effect. West German officials started to focus their time on getting the Arabs and their hostages out of the Olympic Village. This would allow German sharpshooters to put some control over the commandos. This seemed like a better alternative a pose to storming the compound and dangering the lives of the Israeli hostages and other athletes. Negotiations lasted until shortly after 9:00 p.m. The West Germans has successfully persuaded the Arab commandos to leave the compound with their hostages. The commandos agreed to leave on a flight to an Arab country together with their hostages. They made their was towards the Furstenfeldbruck military airport, a fifteen mile trek away from Munich. The Arab commandos anticipated that something could threaten their plans. In order to control their hostages they split them up into two groups and tied and blindfolded them. They were also aware of two potential traps the West Germans had set for them. The sharpshooters were placed along the path the Arab commandos had to walk their hostage's two helicopters that had flown them from Munich to a waiting jet. The nine Israeli sportsmen were led out handcuffed to each other to two helicopters, which were to fly them to the airport. This was the only opportunity the West Germans had to prevent the Arabs from leaving the country. As the first group of Arabs and hostages walked to the jet, shots rang out. No one is certain who opened fire first (be it the West German Sharpshooters or the Arab commandos). However when the West Germans began firing, or firing back, that was the beginning of the shooting of the Israeli hostages. The second commando group had barely left their

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Clinical Decision Support Systems Essay Example

Clinical Decision Support Systems Essay Example Clinical Decision Support Systems Paper Clinical Decision Support Systems Paper Abstract   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper explores the world of clinical decision support systems(CDSS) and the effects they have in the work place. Also how many different types of CDSS such as Bayesian Network (BN), Neural Network(NN), Genetic Algorithms(GA),and MYCIN. This paper will describe key reasons why a decision support system might fail to meet a users expectations and suggest measures that could be taken to avoid such an outcome. Finally this paper will explain what decision tree induction(DTI) means and how it used for classification problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   While alarms and alerts are the most common visible CDSS interventions, there are many more. I will describe many different types of CDSS and their uses in relation to their health care usage. CDSS have been being developed for years for use in the health care society. for the purpose of assistance of diagnosing and treating various illnesses. There is no defined outline for   CDSS as they adapt to the needs of physician and patient. Throughout this paper I will introduce various CDSS and their uses.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Most CDSS consist of   the knowledge base, inference engine, and a communication mechanism. The knowledge base contains the rules and guidelines of gathered data .   With this physicians can program a CDSS to think in an IF-THEN sense. It also allows to user to input additional or new information regarding the diagnoses or treatment of diseases. For example the if the machine is reading a diabetics blood sugar level and it is low then it alerts the physicians. However, some CDSS use a form of artificial intelligence to compile data, read the data, compare it to that of the patient and produce results. In other words it is basically a learning computer in which it takes information from previous account and uses them in the present.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is an adaptive CDSS that uses a form of artificial intelligence, that allows the systems to learn from past patients traits and symptoms and apply an educated guess on the symptoms of a current patient. It consists of nodes called neurodes and send signals between the neurodes in a sort of straight line approach. An ANN consists of 3 main components: Input (receiving data ), Output (informing of possible diseases) and Hidden (data processing). The system becomes more and more effective as it collects data from many patients.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ANN has many advantages such as the virtual elimination of needing to program the systems and providing input various information. The ANN CDSS can process incomplete data by making educated guesses about all other data collected from past experiences. Additionally, ANN systems do not require large data banks to store all of its information in. However ANN does have disadvantages as well such as the training process to new users may be very time consuming leading users to not make full use of the systems. Another down side being disease harboring similar symptoms may be mistaken for one another. Thus the ANN is a double-edged sword.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another less commonly used CDSS is a Genetic Algorithm (GA) a   method developed in the 1940s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology based on Darwin’s evolutionary theories. These algorithms   form different combinations that are better than the previous solutions. Much like neural networks, the genetic algorithms receive their information from patient data.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Advantages of genetic algorithms are the fact that these systems go through an iterative which means to solve a problem through many assumptions of an initial guess. This process is used to produce an the best solution. The wellness/fitness function determines calculations from the ones that can be discarded. A disadvantage is the lack of leniency   in the reasoning involved   making it a less than first choice for physicians and clinicians. The obvious challenge in using genetic algorithms is in defining the wellness/fitness criteria. For genetic algorithms to work correctly there must be many factors such as multiple drug use, or multiple therapies. The Bayesian network(BN) is a   graphical representation that shows a set of variables and their probable relationships between illnesses and symptoms. They are based on conditional probabilities, the probability of an event in relation to the probability of another event. Bayes’ rule helps physicians compute the probability of an event with the help of   readily information and it   processes options as new information is presented.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Some of the advantages of BN include the knowledge and conclusions of experts in the form of hypothesis, assistance in decision making as new evidence is available and are applicable to many models   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   MYCIN(MY) is a CDSS designed to diagnose and recommend treatment for certain blood infections such as meningitis. It has been extended to handle other infectious diseases. MY operated off what physician call if-then statements which means, if certain factors are present then a certain illness is present. It was a goal-directed system, using a sort of reverse thinking.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the ordering phase of a clinic or hospital it is important to take all factors into account. The clinicians and physicians must look at what it is they specialize in what CDSS is best for that particular area. Also have CDSS can accommodate for other fields as well. As stated in Ten Commandments for Effective CDSS [Bates et  al.2003],   speed is everything. This means how quickly the CDSS gathers information and formulates a course of treatment. Also stated is the CDSS must fit into the users work flow, no time can be wasted trying to get a machine to de exactly what you want it to.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reasons a CDSS may not live up to   clinicians or physicians expectations are abundant. First, a machine is just that a machine it can only do what it is programmed to do. Second, It takes time to learn to use and machine and even after learning operation mistakes do happen. Finally, the thing most machines need and most clinicians and physicians dont have is time, the time to program and operate the machine exactly how they want to it to work. This can conflict with work schedules as well as treatment schedules.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are ways to prevent using a seemingly useless CDSS. The most important thing is results, make sure the CDSS is capable to producing quick accurate results. Other things that should be kept in mind is that staff must be trained to use the machine make sure you have time to do so.   Have the knowledge and ability to use the CDSS to its fullest potential while at the same time produce speedy results. It is stated in   Ten Commandments for Effective CDSS that â€Å"All health professionals in the United States face increasing time pressure and can ill afford to spend even more time seeking bits of information† again meaning peed and time are everything.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In CDSS decision analysis, a decision tree   is a   support tool that uses a graph of decisions and their possible outcomes, including chance possibilities, various treatments, and diseases. A decision tree is used to identify the strategy   to reach a course of action suitable for the patient. Another use of trees is to calculate rare cases of a certain disease.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   a decision tree is a predictive model mapping from observations about an item to conclusions about its optimal outcome. Here is an example of a decision tree: In conclusion CDSS can be seen as a very useful tool. They are considered one of the best course of actions in the medical field. Though they may have some setbacks these are easily avoidable with the right information. Thus making CDSS a suitable tool of the health care industry. As long as the clinicians or physicians knows what they need the machine for and its capabilities based of their priorities they are a must have advancement in medical technology. [Bates et  al.2003]Bates, D.  W., Kuperman, G.  J., Wang, S., Gandhi, T., Kittler, A., Volk, L., Spurr, C., Khorasani, R., Tanasijevic, M., and Middleton, B. (2003). Ten commandments for effective clinical decision support: making the practice of evidence-based medicine a reality. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 10(6):523–530. Clinical Decision Support Systems; Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 02/20/09 from wikipedia.org

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Management Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Management - Research Paper Example Several technological advancements have been made in the field of manufacturing affecting the supply chain in different ways. Current application of manufacturing technology in supply chain management and how best the technology can be utilized to improve the supply chain is analyzed in the below discussion. Logistic management is the management of the flow of goods, services and information from source to the desired destination at the lowest possible cost. Through the various stages of transmission, goods and information are faced with various challenges that are a threat to the process. Mismanagement of the logistics can lead to disruption of the supply chain both in the short and the long run. Safety measures in the logistic system determine the effectiveness of the logistic system for a successful supply chain. Among the threats to logistics are increasing with the developments in the market. Risk factors include the unpredictable change in transport and energy costs, higher cost of financing, insolvency of a basic logistic provider, changes in local and international legal requirement and insufficient number of skilled employees in the necessary field (Bielecki & Szymonik 2011) Management of the centralized supply chain is receiving much attention from firms. Firms use customer service measure based on frequency to measure efficiency in the supply chain. The actual measures conducted are the fill rate and stock out rate. These measures indicate the efficiency of the centralized supply chain system. The assumption is that suppliers are able to meet all customer needs and supply the orders as to when required. Advance production is the case with a centralized supply chain to meet customer demand with supply. However, the changes in the market are posing a threat to this system. Given the changes in technology, the supply chain